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What are the different types of inflammasomes?

What are the different types of inflammasomes?

Four key inflammasomes, namely NLRP1, NLRP3, NLRC4, and AIM2, have been best characterized. Activation of these inflammasomes leads to the processing and secretion of inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1β and IL-18, as well as leading to an inflammatory form of cell death termed pyroptosis.

How do you detect inflammasome?

If the NLR sensor is fused to a fluorescent reporter protein, the formation of homo-oligomers appears as a puncta across the cytoplasm of the cell. If the cell treatment directly activates the NLR inflammasome, this technique is a reliable screening method to identify specific inflammasome inhibitors.

How does the Inflammasome work?

Inflammasome formation is triggered by a range of substances that emerge during infections, tissue damage or metabolic imbalances. Once the protein complexes have formed, the inflammasomes activate caspase 1, which proteolytically activates the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β)3 and IL-18.

Which cells express inflammasomes?

To date, the primary focus of inflammasome research has been anchored by NLRP3, which is a cytoplasmic protein that is primarily expressed in monocytes, macrophages, granulocytes, dendritic cells, epithelial cells and osteoblasts(45, 46).

How is NLRP3 measured?

Protein and mRNA levels are not appropriate to measure NLRP3 activation. You should use the formation of ASC or NLRP3 specks, cleavage of caspase-1 or IL1b by Western blot, or release of IL1b by ELISA as indicators. Specificity can be achieved by specific inhibitors.

How is Pyroptosis measured?

Pyroptosis can be studied by looking at caspase activation, gasdermin D cleavage, or by inhibiting or ablating key components of the pyroptotic pathway.

Are inflammasomes cytokines?

As part of the innate immune system, inflammasomes play an important role in the induction of inflammatory cascades and coordination of host defenses, both via the activation and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the induction of a specialized form of immune-stimulatory programmed cell death termed pyroptosis …

Where are inflammasomes located?

Inflammasomes are expressed primarily by myeloid cells and are located within the cell. The macromolecular inflammasome structure can be visualized by cryo-electron microscopy. This complex has been found to play a role in a variety of disease models in mice and several have been genetically linked to human diseases.