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What is the function of kynurenic acid?

What is the function of kynurenic acid?

Kynurenic acid, a metabolite of the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan catabolism, acts as an antagonist for both the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and glycine coagonist sites of the N-methyl-d-aspartic acid receptor at endogenous brain concentrations.

How is kynurenic acid neuroprotective?

The neuroprotective effect of KYNA is generally attributed to its antagonistic action on NMDA receptors. However, this single target action appears insufficient to support KYNA beneficial effects against complex neurodegenerative processes including neuroinflammation, β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) toxicity and apoptosis.

What causes high levels of kynurenic acid?

Kynurenic Acid is product of the metabolism of L-Tryptophan and appears in urine in Vitamin B6 deficiencies. Your body needs vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) to utilize amino acids derived from dietary protein. Inadequate vitamin B6 is one factor that leads to increased concentrations of kynurenate and xanthurenate in urine.

How do you dissolve kynurenic acid?

Kynurenic acid is soluble in water (approximately 0.9% at 100 ºC) and in hot alcohol. 1 It is also soluble in 0.1 N NaOH (4 mg/ml) and DMSO (5 mg/ml), but is insoluble in ether. Solutions may be stored for several days at 4 °C.

What activates the kynurenine pathway?

Inflammation activates the kynurenine pathway, leading to formation of nicotinamide via increased production of 3-hydroxykynurenine and quinolinic acid, major neurotoxic metabolites. Excess activation of tryptophan metabolism throughout the kynurenine pathway induces sustained immune tolerance.

Where does the kynurenine pathway occur?

The KYN pathway is present both in the periphery and liver, catabolizing TRP to yield the essential cellular cofactor, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+); this happens in the event of low niacin in the diet and also yields a multitude of physiologically active/relevant catabolites throughout the metabolic process …

What does high Quinolinate mean?

High levels might be associated with mental illness, ALS, alzheimer’s and depression. Studies have demonstrated that quinolinic acid may be involved in many psychiatric disorders, neurodegenerative processes in the brain, as well as other disorders such as mental illness, ALS, alzheimer’s and depression.

Is kynurenic acid neurotoxic?

Abstract. Kynurenic acid (KYNA) was tested as an antagonist of the neurotoxic and epileptogenic effects of the metabolically related brain constituent quinolinic acid (QUIN).