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What is the bystander effect in immunology?

What is the bystander effect in immunology?

The bystander effect is defined as a process whereby the continued immune response to infection and attendant inflammation allows exposure of normally sequestered auto-antigens to the immune response.

What is bystander effect in cells?

The bystander effect refers to the induction of biological effects in cells that are not directly traversed by a charged particle. The data available concerning the bystander effect fall into two quite separate categories, and it is not certain that the two groups of experiments are addressing the same phenomenon.

What is bystander effect in gene therapy?

Because this therapeutic gene cannot be easily introduced into the whole cell population of a tumor, the successful eradication of tumors depends on a phenomenon called the “bystander effect,” by which the introduced gene can affect even cells in which it is not itself present.

What is bystander antigen?

Bystander effects have been evoked to explain the onset of autoimmune responses, as self antigens could be present at the site of the immune response elicited by a foreign antigen. In vitro bystander responses can be obtained towards self antigens or normally tolerated antigens.

What is CD8 T cells?

Definition. CD8-positive T cells are a critical subpopulation of MHC class I-restricted T cell and are mediators of adaptive immunity. They include cytotoxic T cells, which are important for killing cancerous or virally infected cells, and CD8-positive suppressor T cells, which restrain certain types of immune response …

What is bystander activation?

Bystander activation, occurs when CD8+ T, CD4+ T, or B cells are activated in an antigen-independent manner. • In some infections, bystander activation of immune cells is beneficial for pathogen clearance. • Pathogens may trigger auto-reactive T and B cells bystander activation in autoimmune susceptible individuals.

What is bystander effect in radiology?

The radiation-induced bystander effect (bystander effect) is the phenomenon in which unirradiated cells exhibit irradiated effects as a result of signals received from nearby irradiated cells.

What is bystander killing effect?

‘Bystander killing’ is a term used to describe the broad cell death associated with the transduction of the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene (HSV1-tk) and administration of nucleoside analogs and which extends the killing effect to adjacent cells not transduced with HSV1-tk (‘bystander cells’).

Is mast cell innate or adaptive?

The Innate vs. Adaptive Immune Response

Line of Defense Cells
Innate (non-specific) First Natural killer cells, macrophages, neutrophils, dendritic cells, mast cells, basophils, eosinophils
Adaptive (specific) Second T and B lymphocytes