What is the most common cause of congenital hypothyroidism?

What is the most common cause of congenital hypothyroidism?

Congenital hypothyroidism can be caused by a variety of factors, only some of which are genetic. The most common cause worldwide is a shortage of iodine in the diet of the mother and the affected infant. Iodine is essential for the production of thyroid hormones.

What is the treatment for congenital hypothyroidism?

Congenital hypothyroidism is treated by giving thyroid hormone medication in a pill form called levothyroxine. Many children will require treatment for life. Levothyroxine should be crushed and given once daily, mixed with a small amount of water, formula, or breast milk using a dropper or syringe.

When should you start treating congenital hypothyroidism?

The mainstay in the treatment of congenital hypothyroidism is early diagnosis and thyroid hormone replacement. Optimal care may include diagnosis before age 10-13 days and normalization of thyroid hormone blood levels by age 3 weeks. Only levothyroxine is recommended for treatment.

What are symptoms of cretinism?

Signs of cretinism or congenital hypothyroidism in a newborn include:

  • lack of weight gain.
  • stunted growth.
  • fatigue, lethargy.
  • poor feeding.
  • thickened facial features.
  • abnormal bone growth.
  • mental retardation.
  • very little crying.

How is congenital hypothyroidism prevented?

How can it be prevented? Hypothyroidism usually cannot be prevented, but the mental retardation and other complications usually can be prevented by prompt diagnosis and treatment. Hypothyroidism, PKU, and fetal alcohol syndrome are each important causes of preventable mental retardation.

What is cretinism and what causes it?

Cretinism is a condition of severe physical and mental retardation due to iodine deficiency, and specifically due to deficiency of thyroid hormones during early pregnancy.

What are the symptoms of cretinism?

How is cretinism diagnosed?

The test involves taking a small blood sample from the baby’s heel. A laboratory checks the baby’s blood levels of thyroid hormone (T4) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). Doctors called pediatric endocrinologists treat congenital hypothyroidism.

Can cretinism be treated?

To treat cretinism in newborns, doctors called pediatric endocrinologists to provide babies with thyroid hormone, also called levothyroxine. This thyroid hormone comes in the form of pills which parents can crush and add to their milk, formula, or water.

How does a baby get hypothyroidism?

The most common cause is failure of the thyroid gland to grow during pregnancy or it’s located in an abnormal position in the neck. Treatment may include taking thyroid hormones to increase the level of hormones in the body. Some children will need to take hormones for life. Other children may outgrow the disorder.