How is ancient DNA sequenced?
Ancient DNA is recovered using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). This is a key technique in molecular genetics that permits the analysis of any short sequence of DNA without having to clone it. PCR is used to reproduce (amplify) selected sections of DNA. PCR makes a large number of copies of a gene.
Who invented next-generation sequencing?
Nick McCooke led the pioneer team at Solexa that invented next-generation sequencing, a technology to read DNA at high speed that is nowadays used worldwide and has laid the foundation for precision medicine.
What was the first next-generation sequencing?
The first NGS technology to be commercialised was known as ‘sequencing by synthesis’ (SBS); this technique evolved from a method known as ‘massively parallel signature sequencing’ (MPSS) which Lynx Therapeutics first developed in the 1990s.
What can ancient DNA tell us?
The ability to read ancient DNA allows us to learn new facts about the lives of the ancients, to study genetic changes that shaped present-day organisms, and to get new insights on fascinating evolutionary questions. For example, how did the Neanderthals evolve, and why did mammoths go extinct.
Is ancient DNA reliable?
In spite of past controversies, the field of ancient DNA is now a reliable research area due to recent methodological improvements.
What is NGS used for?
Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is a massively parallel sequencing technology that offers ultra-high throughput, scalability, and speed. The technology is used to determine the order of nucleotides in entire genomes or targeted regions of DNA or RNA.
Where does ancient DNA come from?
Ancient DNA: ↑ DNA that was retrieved from the remains of humans or other organisms that lived in the past. Neanderthal: ↑ A group of archaic humans that was widespread in Europe, Asia and the Middle East, and went extinct about 30,000 years ago.
What is Paleogenomics?
Paleogenomics is a field of science based on the reconstruction and analysis of genomic information in extinct species. Improved methods for the extraction of ancient DNA (aDNA) from museum artifacts, ice cores, archeological or paleontological sites, and next-generation sequencing technologies have spurred this field.